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Work related musculoskeletal disorders

The conference report generated several recommendations for programs and policies to address workplace injuries and illnesses such as work-related musculoskeletal disorders which can be found on pages 17-19 and on pages 35-37 with respect to older construction workers in the report Work Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WRMSDs) are painful injuries affecting the muscles, nerves, ligaments, and tendons of up to 90% of sonographers and other users of diagnostic medical sonography. 6 WRMSDs develop gradually over a period of time from repeated exposure to risk factors and are among the most frequently reported cause of restricted or lost work time What are work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs)? Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) are a group of painful disorders of muscles, tendons, and nerves. Carpal tunnel syndrome, tendonitis, thoracic outlet syndrome, and tension neck syndrome are examples Although reports on the number of work-related musculoskeletal disorders vary from one data system to another, it is clear that a sizable number of individuals report disorders and lost time from work as a result of them.1For example, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (1995) has reported that in 1 year there were 705,800 cases of days away from work that resulted from overexertion or pain from repetitive motion

Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs), referred to as work-related repetitive stress (overuse) injuries, have accounted for a significant proportion of work injuries and workers' compensation claims in Western industrialized nations since the late 1980s related musculoskeletal disorder. Work related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) are sometimes called repetitive strain injuries (RSIs), cumulative trauma disorders and overuse injuries. When a WMSD develops, a worker experiences: Swelling, as some tissues become irritate A work related musculoskeletal disorder (WMSD) is an injury or disease that affects the body's structural systems. A WMSD may affect the bones, tissue, nervous or circulatory system. These musculoskeletal disorders are often caused by repetitive strain or trauma to the musculoskeletal system The terms work related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs), musculoskeletal strain injuries, and cumulative trauma disorders are used to describe conditions that are caused or aggravated by workplace activities. These painful disorders affect the muscles, nerves, ligaments, and tendon Prevention of Musculoskeletal Disorders in the Workplace Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) affect the muscles, nerves, blood vessels, ligaments and tendons

Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSD) Workplace

  1. Musculoskeletal disorders can affect muscles, joints and tendons in all parts of the body. Most WRMSDs develop over time. They can be episodic or chronic in duration and can also result from injury..
  2. Even though the time, there are principles that won't change. Of course not every musculoskeletal disorders are work related, but if you need a nice reference in a book, this is it. It helped me a lot, and now I will recommend it to my friends, as pain physician and workinf in a busy multidisciplinary pain center
  3. The World Health Organization (WHO), recognizing the impact of ‘work-related’ musculoskeletal diseases, has characterized WMSD s as multifactorial, indicating that a number of risk factors contribute to and exac erbate these maladies (Sauter et al., 1993)

Work Related Musculoskeletal Disorder

  1. Musculoskeletal Disorders and Workplace Factors : A Critical Review of Epidemiologic Evidence for Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders of the Neck, Upper Extremity, and Low Back. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Bongers, P.M., C.R. de Winter, M.A.J. Kompier, and V.H. Hildebrand
  2. Of all occupational injuries or illnesses among workers in Massachusetts hospitals, about half are work-related musculoskeletal disorders, or MSDs. The rate of MSDs among Massachusetts hospital workers is, on average, almost twice that of the national rate
  3. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSD) are a set of debilitating conditions that affect the ligaments, muscles, nerves, and tendons with characteristic symptoms that stem from frequent and repetitive motions combined with awkward postures that compromise efficient utilization of the back, elbows, feet, hands/wrists, neck, and shoulders
  4. Also, a significant relationship was found between knee problems and work-related factors. Hossein et al. conducted a cross-sectional study in 2011 to evaluate the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders and related factors among 160 welders working at a petrochemical complex in south Iran. The Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire.

Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSDs) : OSH Answer

  1. A work-related musculoskeletal disorder (WRMD) is defined as a musculoskeletal injury that results from a work-related event. This may result in lost work time, work restriction, or transfer to another job [1-4].These types of injuries are common among physiotherapists [1, 2, 5-9].This group has a moderately high prevalence of occupational low-back pain [2, 9-12]
  2. Musculoskeletal disorders or MSDs are the leading cause of work-related health problems in the healthcare sector. The effects for staff, organisations and society include sickness absence, injuries and disability, increased costs, higher employee turnover, lower productivity and staff leaving the healthcare profession
  3. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders are a common cause of pain and sickness absence for ultrasound practitioners. This article aims to provide background information about factors increasing the chance of developing work-related musculoskeletal disorders and potential ways to reduce risk
  4. work-related MSD complaints, suffered during the past 12 months, caused or made worse by work. This is a broad concept that . i. European Agency for Safety and Health at Work. Work-related neck and upper limb musculoskeletal disorders, 1999. National Research Council. Musculoskeletal disorders and the workplace, 2001 . ii. Waddell G
  5. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders significantly impact on the quality of life of affected individuals, can cause economic hardship and affect service provision. Aim : To identify, review, and.
  6. ations. Now, imagine caring for these patients while you are in pain. For many sonographers, physicians, and other medical professionals perfor

Work-related musculoskeletal disorders are disorders of the muscles, skeleton, and related tissues. They are of the most common occupational disorders around the world. They had been recognised as an issue since Bernardino Ramazzini's time in the 17th century. They have been known by many names including repetitive strain injury, occupational overuse syndrome and cumulative trauma disorders Objective: The present study assessed postural load and its risk factors for developing work-related musculoskeletal disorders during performance of various tasks to dairy farming and assessing.

Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), sometimes called ergonomic injuries, occur when the body uses muscles, tendons, and ligaments to perform tasks, often times in awkward positions or in frequent activities which over time can create pain and injury. Overexertion and repetitive motion are the primary causes of these injuries These disorders are also closely associated with other diseases and often influence their occurrences such as depression. Apart from the personal pain, suffering, stress, work-related absence, and conflict, Musculoskeletal Disorders have a direct implication on the health systems and economies of the countries Disorders of the musculoskeletal system represent a main cause for absence from occupational work. Musculoskeletal disorders lead to considerable costs for the public health system. Specific disorders of the musculoskeletal system may relate to different body regions and occupational work. For example, disorders in the lower back are often correlated to lifting and carrying of loads of to the. Laundry » Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders. Hazards. Well maintained cart Spring-loaded platform Automatic dumping washer Handling bag Plastic basin in the bottom of the sink. Excessive reaching/pushing during the cleaning and transport of laundry and/or lifting wet, heavy laundry can cause work-related musculoskeletal disorders such as.

Introduction - Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders

  1. e the scientific literature relevant to work-related musculoskeletal disorders of the lower back, neck, and upper extremities
  2. ent due to ergonomic risk factors.Work-related risk factors are further divided into high task repetition, forceful exertions, and awkward postures. These are considered as primary culprits of MSDs
  3. e the scientific literature relevant to work-related musculoskeletal disorders of the lower back, neck, and upper extremities
  4. disorders(WRULDs)(Buckle&Devereux,1999)andlowerbackdisorders(DeBeecket al.,2000). Work-related musculoskeletal disorders: Prevention report E U R O P E A N A G E N C Y F O R S A F E T Y A N D H E A L TH A T W O RK 1
  5. ate—exposure can come as a result of movement or non-movement, sapping the productivity of your workforce, cutting into your margins, and worst of all, leaving workers in a whole lot of pain

Physiotherapists are known to be prone to Work- related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMDs) but its prevalence among physiotherapists in Nigeria has not been reported. This study investigated the prevalence and work factors of WRMDs among physiotherapists in Nigeria. A cross- sectional survey was administered to physiotherapists in different parts of Nigeria using a 2- part questionnaire with. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) include injuries or disorders of the muscles, nerves, tendons, joints, cartilage, and spinal discs. For instance, sprains or strains resulting from overexertion in lifting are considered MSDs. The SOII estimates the number and incidence rates of MSD cases requiring days away from work Work-related MusculoSkeletal Disorders Questionnaire (WMSD) The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government The most common types of musculoskeletal pain include: Bone pain: Injuries such as bone fractures or other musculoskeletal injuries cause bone pain. Less commonly, a tumor may cause bone pain. Joint pain: Stiffness and inflammation often accompany joint pain. For many people, joint pain gets better with rest and worsens with activity Musculoskeletal Disorders . This chapter reviews current knowledge about the pathophysiologic mechanisms of work-related MSDs. It is important for the clinician to appreciate the pathophysiology of MSDs in order to develop effective interventions and prevention tactics

There are a growing number of theories and models that describe how work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) are caused. Nine of these theories and models are described, compared and contrasted. The models are then integrated to form a composite model that incorporates the various paths and mechanisms that have been proposed. This composite model illustrates the complexity of WMSD. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs) refer to a wide range of inflammatory and degenerative conditions that occur in the workplace or are caused by work activities. WRMSDs affect the muscles, tendons, ligaments, joints, peripheral nerves, and supporting blood vessels. These conditions can cause pain and functional impairment and they often result in direct economic costs to both the.

What is a symptoms survey for work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs)? One element of an effective ergonomics program for the prevention of WMSDs is to ask workers questions about their health. A symptoms survey helps to find out when workers are experiencing any discomfort, pain or disability that may be related to workplace activities.. Reports of Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders. A total of 156 laboratory personnel working at 9 public hospital laboratories were involved in the study. The average age of participants was 33.96 years (standard deviation [SD] = 8.48 years), with ages ranging from 22 to 54 years. Of these, 83 (53.2%) were men Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders 20th November 2019 Currently in Great Britain, there are 498,000 workers suffering with a new or long-standing musculoskeletal disorder, resulting in 6.9 million working days to be lost as a result of this every single year ( HSE 2018/19 ) The observed risk for work-related musculoskeletal disorder due to work experience (5 years or more) in current study (OR = 1.29; 95% CI 0.87-1.93) was similar to the results reported in Ethiopian hairdressers (OR = 1.51; 95% CI 1.03-2.20). 20 Adoption of coping strategy to reduce the MSD pain is a natural response in form of taking sufficient.

Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorder - an overview

What Are Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders? According to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), a work-related MSD is an injury of the muscles, tendons, ligaments, nerves, joints, cartilage, bones, or blood vessels in the arms, legs, head, neck, or back that is caused or aggravated by work tasks such as lifting, pushing, and pulling Preventing Musculoskeletal Disorders For More Information Workplace ergonomics deals with manual lifting, carrying, pushing and pulling of heavy loads, over-exertion, awkward postures and repetitive actions, which can lead to the development of WRMSDs Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) are a group of painful disorders that affect the muscles, tendons, and nerves. Most health and safety agencies, including the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), only classify disorders that develop gradually through overuse of the musculoskeletal system as WMSDs

Of all musculoskeletal disorders, work-related complaints continue to create the greatest burden to society, particularly in industrialised countries. In the Netherlands the costs of back pain, estimated on a yearly basis in 1991, were $ 5 billion and 1.7% of the Gross National Product (Van Tulder et al. 1995) Non-Work-Related Risk Factors for Musculoskeletal Disorders Some risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders have nothing to do with work. Certain medical conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, hormone imbalances and pregnancy can increase your chances of getting some musculoskeletal disorders Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders: The Epidemiologic Evidence and the Debate Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology Thus there is an international near-consensus that musculoskeletal disorders are causally related to occupational ergonomic stressors, such as repetitive and stereotyped motions, forceful exertions, non-neutral. Click here to obtain permission for Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders: Report, Workshop Summary, and Workshop Papers. Translation and Other Rights For information on how to request permission to translate our work and for any other rights related query please click here

Work related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs) constitute a serious occupational health problem among registered nurses (RN) all around the world. Its prevalence is mainly associated with nurses' high physical demands that still remain poorly studied in primary health care (PHC) INTRODUCTION Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders is a group of ailments that affect tendon, muscle and nerve complex as a result of being exposed to work risks. The risks majorly include: Force Repetition Awkward & Prolonged Posture Contact stress Vibration Cold temperature with above risks

Summarize ergonomic engineering controls that support appropriate design and use of ultrasound equipment and workspace to reduce risk for work-related injuries; and Explain administrative, organizational, professional, and policy issues directly related to the promotion of sonography and sonologist health This issue is dedicated to the topic of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs) in sonography. The topic of WRMSDs has been discussed extensively and also generated the need for a consensus conference to gather leaders from professional organizations, stakeholders, and commercial vendors Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are a range of conditions that affect joints (arthropathies), spinal vertebrae and intervertebral discs (dorsopathies), the synovium, muscles, tendons and related tissues, soft tissues Background: Work-related musculoskeletal disorder is one of the most important public health problems throughout the world. However, there is a paucity of knowledge on work-related musculoskeletal.

Ergonomics

Work-related musculoskeletal disorders in sonographers: a review of causes and types of injury and best practices for reducing injury risk Carolyn T Coffin Department of Diagnostic Ultrasound, Seattle University, Seattle, WA, USA Abstract: Work-related musculoskeletal disorders in sonography professionals have a reported incidence of 90% Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSD) have been reported in a number of professions for several years, but have only been identified in the ultrasound profession in the last 10 years. Musculoskeletal disorders are the major cause of work place injury and have a significant economic impact on industries (1) Work-relat ed musculoskelatal disorders can be caused by poor workplace design or prolonged sedentary work. Here' s a quick guide on office stretching exercises shared by The Occupational Therapy Department at Singapore General Hospital (SGH). and prol onged sedentary work are key factors of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD)

Musculoskeletal disorders can affect muscles, joints, and tendons in all parts of the body. Most work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs) develop over time. They can be episodic or chronic in duration and can also result from an injury sustained in a work-related accident. Additionally, they can progress from mild to severe disorders Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) are a common cause of morbidity affecting occupational people such as health professionals [1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9].Nurses are reportedly the hardest hit among health-care professionals [10,11,12,13,14,15].Unabated, WMSDs interfere with productive work and quality of life [1, 4, 11, 13, 16, 17].The prevalence of WMSDs among nurses varies between studies Introduction. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) cover a broad range of health problems. These health problems range from discomfort, minor aches and pains, to more serious medical conditions that can lead to permanent disability.Every year millions of European workers are affected by MSDs Key Points. Question What is the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders among at-risk physicians (surgeons and interventionalists)?. Findings Among 21 articles (5828 physicians) included in this systematic review and meta-analysis, the 12-month prevalence estimates for neck, shoulder, back, and upper extremity pain were estimated Musculoskeletal disorders are a major source of morbidity in the United States.Healthy People 2010 and Healthy People 2020 both list physical activity as one of the leading health indicators, [1,2] and musculoskeletal disorders are among the most common causes of disability and subsequent lack of physical activity. [3,4] Musculoskeletal disorders represent a burden on society in both direct.

Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) remain a major concern for workers in the healthcare industry. Healthcare workers are at high risk of work-related MSDs mainly caused by overexertion from lifting and moving patients (i.e., patient handling). Wearable robots—exoskeletons or exosuits—may be a useful tool to help reduce risk of MSDs during. Objective . To investigate the status of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) in nurses working in the hospitals in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. Methods . The prevalence of WMSDs since working and in the previous 12 months was evaluated using self-administrated modified musculoskeletal questionnaire based on North European questionnaire Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are a serious problem among hospital personnel, and in particular the nursing staff. Of primary concern are back injuries and shoulder strains which can both be severely debilitating. The nursing profession is one of the most risky occupations for low back pain. The primary cause for MSDs in nursing.

Employers must protect workers from the risks of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) being caused or made worse by work. MSDs include injuries and conditions that can affect the back, joints and limbs. You: can do things to prevent or minimise the risk of your workers (and others who may be affected by. Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSDs) STUDY. Flashcards. Learn. Write. Spell. Test. PLAY. Match. Gravity. Created by. DanTheTigerMan. Terms in this set (6) Define WMSDs (important aspects is soft tissue and how it occurs gradually) Injuries that affect the soft tissue of the body and develop gradually over time due to micro-trauma to. What year was the Industry Standards for the Prevention of Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders in Sonography published? 2003. How many Sonographers were working in pain in the study in 2009? 90%. beginning in 2003 what efforts were made to become more ergonomic?-adjustable, lighter machine for work-related musculoskeletal disorders. With the development of assistive equipment, such as lift and transfer devices, the risk of musculoskeletal injury can be significantly reduced. Effective use of assistive equipment and devices for patient handling creates a safe healthcare environment by separating the physical burden fro

Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are injuries or pain in the human musculoskeletal system, including the joints, ligaments, muscles, nerves, tendons, and structures that support limbs, neck and back. MSDs can arise from a sudden exertion (e.g., lifting a heavy object), or they can arise from making the same motions repeatedly repetitive strain, or from repeated exposure to force, vibration, or. n this unit lesson, we discuss the risk factors associated with the development of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). Ergonomic injuries are prevalent in the healthcare industry due to the nature of the work required as illustrated in our lesson with Mr. Bach, a certified nurse assistant who injured his back while attempting to assist a resident from the floor to the bed. In.

What is a Work Related Musculoskeletal Disorder (WMSD

Ergonomics - Overview Occupational Safety and Health

Work related Musculoskeletal Disorders: The inflammatory and degenerative conditions that affect the muscles, tendons, ligaments, joints, peripheral nerves and supporting blood vessels with consequent ache, pain or discomfort are termed as musculoskeletal disorders. Work related musculoskeletal BACKGROUND: Nurses are considered the group of healthcare workers with the highest prevalence of Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WRMDs). The most common physical demands of nursing that have been found to contribute to WRMDs include lifting, working in awkward postures, stooping, and repetitive actions

Work Related Musculoskeletal Disorders: 9780748401314

The reporting of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMDS) within the sonography profes-sion first came to light through the publication of serial case reports by Craig in 1985.1 Her reports of musculoskeletal injury related to working with patients and equipment in the field prompted Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders • Some studies have estimated the cost of work-related upper limb musculoskeletal disorders (WRULD) at between 0.5% and 2% of Gross National Product (GNP). • France (2005) three quarters of occupational diseases were musculoskeletal disorders. The 31,000 compensated diseases have lead to a loss of 6.5 million workdays and a cost of 650.

Upper limb disorders - How to manage & prevent in the

Abstract. Workers in the construction trades experience high rates of injury and illness, including work-related musculoskeletal disorders. As the basis for formulating and implementing ergonomics changes to reduce musculoskeletal disorders among bricklayers, a questionnaire survey was conducted regarding work-related musculoskeletal disorders and the troublesome job factors which bricklayers. Among musculoskeletal disorders, low back pain causes the highest burden with a prevalence of 568 million people. Musculoskeletal conditions are the leading contributor to disability worldwide, with low back pain being the single leading cause of disability in 160 countries To identify work-related musculoskeletal symptoms and any associated work-related risk factors, focusing on structural labor factors among hotel workers. A total of 1,016 hotel workers (620 men and 396 women) were analyzed. The questionnaire surveyed participants' socio-demographics, health-related behaviors, job-related factors, and work-related musculoskeletal symptoms

Epidemiology of WMSDs . The number of cases of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) in the United States has been gradually declining since the mid-1990s ( Fig. 138-1 ).However, the number of WMSD cases was 335,900 in 2007 and accounted for approximately one in three occupational injuries and illnesses associated with lost workdays On the other hand, Work Related-Musculoskeletal Disorder (WRMSDs) have been caused by the continuous and long-term high repetitive task, sudden exposure to lifting or carrying of heavy loads, excessive force, working in an awkward body posture and vibration. 1 Work-related musculoskeletal disorders affect both employers and workers. It. Furthermore, work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) are among the leading causes of occupational diseases among healthcare professionals worldwide [5-7]. In a clinical setting, nursing personnel often must move, pull, or push patients to and from their beds or other locations, and such activities involve excessive bending or turning.

References - Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders - NCBI

Work-related musculoskeletal disorder (WRMDs) is defined as damage to the musculoskeletal system resulting from work-related events and it is one of the most general causes of chronic pain and physical disorders occurring among modern workers. WRMDs result in loss of work time, restriction of tasks, o Musculoskeletal disorders. Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are some of the most common work-related ailments: they affect millions of workers and cost employers in lost productivity. There is growing evidence that links MSDs with psychosocial risk factors such as: high workloads. tight deadlines. lack of control of the work and working methods sonographers about work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs) and ways to prevent them. The following is a compilation of some of the most common questions and the answers that have been given. It provides a broad overview of the subject and gives links to more definitive documentation and advice These injuries, also called Work Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSDs), account for some of the largest costs in injury claims and lost work time in the DOD. Let's go over some of the most common WMSD injuries Army employees face, warning signs, risk factors for the WMSD, and possible workspace redesign solutions

Work-related musculoskeletal disorders among healthcare

What is Work Related Musculoskeletal Disorder Hazard

The Cold Hard Facts about WRMSDs. On average, more than 647,000 production days are lost annually due to work related musculoskeletal disorders.. With estimated costs of $45-60 billion dollars in workmen's' compensation claims annually, work related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs) account for thirty-four percent (34%) of all associated work related injuries and illnesses The rise in the incidence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSD) reported in sonographers is concerning and can result in increased costs to the health care system as well as personal costs to the sonographer. All parties including employers, patients, and sonographers benefit from a safe ergonomically sound working environment

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professionals and anyone who works to reduce the risk of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in the workplace. This guide gives practical information on actions that can be taken to prevent and manage MSDs in the workplace. MSDs can be work-related, work exacerbated or non-work-related; however, this guide addresses MSDs a Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) refer to an injury or dysfunction of muscles, bones, nerves, tendons, ligaments, joints, cartilage, and spine . It has been reported that 30% of European workers suffer from back pain, and the economic loss caused by back pain in Holland accounts for 1.7% of the national wealth every year Work-related upper limb and neck musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are one of the most common occupational disorders worldwide. Studies have shown that the percentage of office workers that suffer from MSDs ranges from 20 to 60 per cent Keywords. Work related musculoskeletal disorders, nurses, reliability, Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire. Introduction. Over decades, a number of researchers reported high rates of workplace injury within the health care industry [1,2] including work related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs) [].WRMSDs are categorized as non-communicable disease and best described as disorders or. Background: Musculoskeletal disorders refer to a broad range degenerative and inflammatory conditions that affect the joints, muscles, ligaments, tendons, bones, nerves, and the localized blood circulation systems. Despite there being significant literature about musculoskeletal disorders among teachers in other parts of the world, Kenya lags behind in research